Medications for Treatment of Addictions



Medications for Treatment of Addictions

QUESTION
In your research analysis paper, you will select one specific issue, question, topic, problem, or concern of interest to you (as it pertains to neurobiology of addiction), and then build your paper around this topic. The research analysis provides an integrative review of current research; you should go beyond simply explaining your topic to highlight how recent research informs the topic. You will build your research analysis in three stages:

Stage 1: Select topic and locate 5 relevant empirical research articles and create an annotated bibliography (see attached template LINK)
Medications for Treatment of Addictions

ANSWER
Medications for Treatment of Addictions

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Medications for Treatment of Addictions
Medications for the treatment of addictions vary depending on the substance an individual is addicted to. They ease the difficulty of the treatment process and help those recovering from addictions to remain sober. I searched for articles published in English in PubMed, Medscape Journal of Medicine, JAMA Network, National Library of Medicine, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to find out more about medications. I also searched the Internet for relevant, credible sources. These databases contain peer-reviewed journal articles published within the ideal time. I used the following keywords; “alcoholism treatments,” “opioid treatments,” and “medication for addiction,” and found several articles with information containing the medication options to treat addictions that have proof of success. This study aims to use research methods to find medications to treat addictions with a good track record.
Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, I., Lawn, W., Krupitsky, E., & Morgan, C. (2018). Ketamine for the treatment of addiction: Evidence and potential mechanisms. Neuropharmacology, 142, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.01.017/

This article is from PubMed, a national library of medicine that comprises more than 33 million biomedical literature from all scientific journals, books, and other publisher websites.
The authors explore the preclinical and clinical use of ketamine, a dissociative anaesthetic drug that acts on the central nervous system by antagonizing the n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The drug reduces the reward-seeking behavior experienced when addicts use substances or alcohol, making them feel harmful, thus reducing the addiction. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain most targeted as it distinguishes right from wrong. In addition, it also sensitizes the body of the harm associated with taking the addictive substance. It also enhances the flexibility of neurotransmitters, disrupts the functional networks needed for addiction, treats depressive symptoms, blocks the reconsolidation of memories related to drugs and substance use, and enhances the benefits of psychological therapy. These factors make ketamine a great treatment option for addictions. This paper is thus relevant to provide information regarding a specific treatment option that works for alcohol and opioid addictions in conjunction with psychotherapy.
Mintz, C. M., Xu, K. Y., Presnall, N. J., Hartz, S. M., Levin, F. R., Scherrer, J. F., Bierut, L. J., & Grucza, R. A. (2022). Analysis of stimulant prescriptions and drug-related poisoning risk among persons receiving buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. JAMA Network Open, 5(5), e2211634. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.11634/

This article is from JAMA network, a consortium of peer-reviewed articles covering all areas of biomedicine. It is thus relevant to provide information regarding medications.
The article explores the outcomes of prescription stimulants on individuals under treatment for opioid use disorder. The researchers found that using stimulant drugs on patients under treatment for opioid use might have unintended effects. Stimulant medications lead to better engagement and retention in buprenorphine, which is very relevant to relieving the patient of opioid addiction. On the downside, the patient continues to take the addiction medication but ends up with an increase in buprenorphine. The researchers examined the association between prescription stimulants and the possible outcomes of drug-related poisoning and buprenorphine retention. They found out that in individuals that have opioid use disorder and have previously experienced drug-related poisoning, the use of stimulant medication might increase the risk for opioid poisoning and at the same time, prolonged use of buprenorphine reduces the risk. The data is relevant to fill the gap in the literature for clinicians who prescribe stimulants to patients in terms of the effects of treatment. It also raises questions about other treatment options like the effects that occur for clinicians that prescribe buprenorphine where there is a high prevalence of methamphetamine use.

National Institutes of Health. (2021, September 3). Treatment approaches for drug addiction DrugFacts. National Institute on Drug Abuse. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction/

This source is from the national institute of drug abuse, whose mandate is to provide the public with medically accurate information regarding addiction, and is thus relevant in this study.
The fact sheet provides information on research findings regarding the effective treatment approaches for drug abuse and addiction and alcohol use disorder. There is no single treatment for everyone, and treatment options include behavioral therapy and medication. The study also found that drug use during treatment should be monitored. The study found that the first step should be to address withdrawal symptoms before starting the treatments in medication treatment. Lofexidine was the FDA’s choice drug for detoxification. Opioid addictions are treated with various medications, but the study found methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone worked well. Bupropion and varenicline worked for tobacco addictions, and naltrexone, Acamprosate, and disulfiram worked for alcohol addiction. The medications could be administered in-patient or outside the clinical setting. This article thus provides facts about all available options for treating addictions and elaborates on the medications for substance use.
Olive, M. F., Cleva, R. M., Kalivas, P. W., & Malcolm, R. J. (2012). undefined. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 100(4), 801-810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2011.04.015/

This source was from PubMed, a national library of medicine that comprises more than 33 million biomedical literature from all scientific journals, books, and other publisher websites.
The researchers recognize the existence of end substitution-based methods that replace the end products of the addictive substance with the drug or drugs that target the neurotransmitter systems. It also adds another method that uses ligands acting on glutamatergic transmission, which can treat drug addictions and any other disorder. The paper reviews pharmacological mechanisms of actions and efficacy, safety and tolerance of the drugs among its participants and found that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), modafinil, and topiramate had the best outcomes in reducing the pleasure-seeking behavior associated with substance use and abuse, especially cocaine and alcohol.
Wang, S., Chen, Y., Chen, S., Lee, C., & Cheng, C. (2020). undefined. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(17), 6413. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176413/

The National Center for Biotechnology Information is a part of the National Library of Medicine, and it contains all information necessary for research.
The authors explore treatment options for alcohol use disorder and find that disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate, and nalmefene, are good intervention methods. It also identifies the shortcomings associated with drug use and limited knowledge regarding the prolonged effects of the drugs on the system. The researchers also emphasize the gut-brain axis as a method to address alcohol use disorder. Probiotics used in treating the disorder ensure the gut lining is healthy. A healthy gut has compound effects on the health of any individual. In addicts, it reduces the psychotropic effects on anxiety and depression, reducing the behaviors that most likely lead individuals to seek alcohol. This source is thus relevant in finding a combined method of treating alcohol addiction.

Ivan and his colleagues found ketamine was a good treatment option. Mintz and his colleagues first cautioned and then provided information on stimulant medication on patients under buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. The National Institutes of Health provided relevant information on medication for addictions. Olive and his colleagues found that ligands acting on glutamatergic transmission can treat drug addictions and other disorders. Wang and his colleagues provided information on medication and probiotic options. These sources are thus relevant to provide medication options to treat addictions.  
References
Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, I., Lawn, W., Krupitsky, E., & Morgan, C. (2018). Ketamine for the treatment of addiction: Evidence and potential mechanisms. Neuropharmacology, 142, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.01.017
Mintz, C. M., Xu, K. Y., Presnall, N. J., Hartz, S. M., Levin, F. R., Scherrer, J. F., Bierut, L. J., & Grucza, R. A. (2022). Analysis of stimulant prescriptions and drug-related poisoning risk among persons receiving buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. JAMA Network Open, 5(5), e2211634. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.11634
National Institutes of Health. (2021, September 3). Treatment approaches for drug addiction DrugFacts. National Institute on Drug Abuse. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction
Olive, M. F., Cleva, R. M., Kalivas, P. W., & Malcolm, R. J. (2012). undefined. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 100(4), 801-810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2011.04.015
Wang, S., Chen, Y., Chen, S., Lee, C., & Cheng, C. (2020). undefined. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(17), 6413. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176413

Medications for Treatment of Addictions


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