Medications for Treatment of Addictions Paper Outline

Medications for Treatment of Addictions Paper Outline

you will create the structure of your research analysis paper including the title page, introductory paragraph, outline of body of paper and reference page.

Assignment Expectations:

at this stage, your paper will be 3 or 4 pages (title page, body, reference page)
provide the APA style reference list for all research utilized in the paper
Medications for Treatment of Addictions Paper Outline

Medications for Treatment of Addictions Part 2

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Medications for Treatment of Addictions Paper Outline
A. Introduction
Based on the broad research which has formed the basis of this topic, it is a vital thing to assess and evaluate the medications used for the treatment of addiction as well as their effectiveness. While investigating several instances and literature about some of the medications, some of the crucial findings point to the fact that some of these medications are appropriate and effective for addiction treatment. Addiction is a persistent and long-lasting condition that interferes with an addict’s life. Treating addiction requires seeking outside help and the integration of medical professionals to increase an individual’s chances of success to attain sobriety. Different medications are used to treat substance addiction based on the substance abused and the severity of the addiction. Different researches have been conducted to investigate different types of medications and how they are used to address addiction. Some of these researches are relevant and successful for this case while others do not have proof of success. Among the successful researches, the medications identified to be useful in the treatment of addiction prove to be appropriate and reliable. This paper will detail different medications and their mechanism of action, whose appropriateness for the treatment of different addictions is well established.
Body of the Paper
B. Medication I
My first focus is on Ketamine, which is one of the arylcyclohexylamines, an anesthetic drug that targets the central nervous system. This is because Ketamine is a drug found to be effective in the treatment of substance addiction especially alcohol and heroin. The action of ketamine is to inhibit the n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor essential for reducing problematic substance use. According to the research conducted by Morgan, ketamine is associated with an induction of long-term abstinence from alcohol and heroin use among addicted individuals (Morgan et al., 2018). I chose Ketamine as it is established to reduce the urge to consume any of the drugs as well as the craving to self-administer oneself with these drugs. The actions that ketamine triggers in addicted individuals include blocking of reconsolidation of memories about drugs, addressing the depressive symptoms from drugs, neuroplasticity, and neurogenesis.
C. Medication II
Secondly, medications for addiction treatment are not only used to treat addiction but also to address the symptoms of drug withdrawal, prevent relapse as well as treat associated conditions. During detoxification, medications are essential in managing withdrawal symptoms whereas otherwise, an individual tends to go back to substance abuse. An example of a medication used to address withdrawal symptoms is lofexidine which is specifically used to manage withdrawal symptoms for opioids. Additionally, medications are used to prevent relapse among addicted individuals which are essential in re-establishing a sober brain functioning and reducing the urge to consume drugs. Medications used to prevent relapse include methadone and buprenorphine for opioid addiction, bupropion, varenicline used for tobacco, and naltrexone, disulfiram, and acamprosate for alcohol addiction (Wang et al., 2020). Medications are also used to address co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and depression which are risk factors for substance use.
D. Medication III
In the treatment of alcohol use disorder, medications such as disulfiram, acamprosate, nalmefene, and naltrexone are essential and the most appropriate. From my research, I found out that these medicines should be used with great caution due to their associated shortcomings which might result in prolonged effects of the drug (Wang et al., 2020). In addition to these medications, the gut-brain axis is another essential intervention in addressing alcohol addiction where prescribed probiotics ensure a normal gut lining. A normal functioning gut is associated with a reduction in alcohol dependence among individuals (Wang et al., 2020).
E. Medication IV
My other focus is on Glutamatergic medications which are addiction treatment medications that aim at the monoaminergic as well as utilization of substitution-based methods. According to research carried out by Richard and others, glutamatergic medications used to treat addiction work by manipulating glutamatergic neurotransmissions. Some of these medications include acamprosate, N-acetylcysteine, gabapentin, topiramate, modafinil, lamotrigine, and D-cycloserine (Powell et al., 2019). Among the above medications, N-acetylcysteine, topiramate, and modafinil are the most effective in the treatment of addiction. NAC is a cysteine pro-drug that connects the cysteine-glutamate exchanger and promotes the synthesis of glutathione. Topiramate is an anticonvulsant that works in multiple actions including blocking presynaptic voltage-gated Na+ and Ca+ channels which inhibits the release of glutamate neurotransmitters (Powell et al., 2019). Lastly, modafinil acts by suppressing GABA release hence stimulating hypothalamic orexin neurons.
F. Medication V
Lastly, I will major in stimulant medications that are used among addicted people and prescribed with buprenorphine for opioid use disorder. Approved by FDA, buprenorphine is a medication-assisted treatment and is mainly used to address opioid use among individuals. From research, stimulants prescribed to opioid addicts may result to lead to an increased risk of drug-related poisoning. However, stimulant medications result in offsetting risk when associated with buprenorphine retention, essential in relieving the addict from opioid addiction (Mintz et al., 2022). According to research, this association results in long-term exposure to buprenorphine which eventually protects the individual against overdose. This medication should therefore be used with care and analysis of an individual’s previous medication should be examined before the prescription.
G. Conclusion
Medication used to treat different addictions varies depending on the type of addiction and substance abuse. Some of the medications address the addiction directly while others are used together with other pharmacotherapies for effectiveness. Ketamine is one of the medications established to address addiction, especially for heroin and alcohol. Other medications such as methadone and lofexidine are used to address withdrawal symptoms, prevent relapse, and treat associated conditions. Glutamatergic medications are also used to treat addiction which works by manipulating glutamatergic neurotransmissions. Lastly, stimulant medications are effective in opioid addiction treatment which works best when associated with buprenorphine retention.

Ezquerra-Romano, I. I., Lawn, W., Krupitsky, E., & Morgan, C. J. A. (2018). Ketamine for the treatment of addiction: Evidence and potential mechanisms. Neuropharmacology, 142, 72-82.
Mintz, C. M., Xu, K. Y., Presnall, N. J., Hartz, S. M., Levin, F. R., Scherrer, J. F., … & Grucza, R. A. (2022). Analysis of stimulant prescriptions and drug-related poisoning risk among persons receiving buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. JAMA network open, 5(5), e2211634-e2211634.
Powell, G., McClure, E. A., Foster Olive, M., & Gipson, C. D. (2019). Clinical treatment of addictive disorders with N-acetylcysteine. The therapeutic use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in medicine, 219-233.
Wang, S. C., Chen, Y. C., Chen, S. J., Lee, C. H., & Cheng, C. M. (2020). Alcohol addiction, gut microbiota, and alcoholism treatment: A review. International journal of molecular sciences, 21(17), 6413.

Medications for Treatment of Addictions Paper Outline

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