Asthma And COPD
In spite of the fact that COPD and asthma are both chronic inflammatory lung illnesses, the form of the inflammation that develops is likely the most significant distinction between the two conditions. Eosinophils are primarily responsible for the inflammation that occurs in asthma, while neutrophils are implicated in COPD. This is an essential difference because the kind of inflammation influences how the body reacts to pharmacological treatments. For example, corticosteroids are efficient against inflammation caused by eosinophils, while they are mainly useless against inflammation caused by neutrophils.
It is important to note, though, that as COPD and asthma symptoms get more severe, the f inflammation patterns become quite similar to one another. In line with the growth of eosinophils, an aggravation of asthma brought on by a virus may be accompanied by an increment in the number of neutrophils. And in exacerbations of COPD there could be an increment in eosinophil numbers. This goes some way to explaining the medication therapy of corticosteroids to COPD patients in terms of managing an acute exacerbation or regular exacerbations (Murphy, 2011).
When someone has asthma, their airways become obstructed as a consequence of bronchial smooth muscle contraction, airway hyper-reactivity to allergens, as well as inflammation that is associated with elevation in eosinophils and activation of t cells. In most cases of COPD, the airway smooth muscle does not become restricted. Instead, obstruction is related mostly with mucus hypersecretion as well as mucosal infiltration by inflammatory cells. This results in cell damage and the loss of alveolar tissue. In addition, the loss of cells and structural abnormalities that accompany COPD both impede with pulmonary circulation and oxygenation.
A young child who has repeated, intermittent bouts of coughing and wheezing, which could be followed by chest tightness or breathlessness, is the prototypical early clinical manifestation of asthma. The characteristic symptom is wheezing on exhalation, while other individuals present primarily with coughing, particularly in the evening and nighttime hours. People who have a history of asthma or atopy in their families are more likely to develop asthma themselves. The development of asthma in children is also more prevalent. Usually, the severity of symptoms may worsen when the individual is exposed to allergen and triggers, like pollen, dust mites, and animal dander. In some people, asthma symptoms go away once they’ve finished their childhood (van der Heide, 2021).
On the other hand, children practically never suffer from COPD, and even adults below 40 years almost never do. The typical patient is an elderly former or current smoker who exhibits increasing breathlessness, maybe coughing, and increased mucus production, all while lowering their level of physical activity. This is known as the typical presentation. While a lengthy smoking history is usually often connected with COPD, asthma may affect both smokers and those who have never picked up a cigarette. Only 27% of individuals who have asthma have symptoms on a daily basis, however persons who have COPD are more prone to experience symptoms on a continual basis.
I will become familiar with the various breath sounds, ranging from normal to pathological, while working through the shadow health module in the Respiratory Concept Lab. I was able to locate breath patterns in all of the lung areas by learning where to position my stethoscope. I was able to recognize aberrant lung sounds and know that my professional development will be enhanced if I use this respiratory idea to each patient I evaluate in the future. I want to become better by applying to each and every one of my encounters with my patients. The Respiratory Modules and the Respiratory Concept Lab will be completed over the weeks. In the respiratory concept lab, students learn about auscultation and get anatomical perspectives of what is going on within the pulmonary system. The additional imagery that the idea lab offers will also be helpful.
Murphy, A. (2011). Knowing the differences between COPD and asthma is vital to good practice. Pharmaceutical Journal, 287(7673), 399.
van der Heide, I., Poureslami, I., Shum, J., Goldstein, R., Gupta, S., Aaron, S., … & Canadian Airways Health Literacy Study Group. (2021). Factors Affecting Health Literacy as Related to Asthma and COPD Management: Learning from Patient and Health Care Professional Viewpoints. HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice, 5(3), e179-e193.