Select another CNS, pain, inflammation, bone, or joint disorder from a different category than the one that you discussed in DQ1, and briefly explain the pathophysiology of that disorder. Select a drug used to treat the disorder you identified. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Discuss evidence and treatment guidelines to determine appropriate therapeutic options for a patient with your selected disorder. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

Topic 3 DQ 2 – Ibuprofen

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Topic 3 DQ 2 – Ibuprofen
Joints are points of intersection between two or more bones. They comprise different types of tissues, including ligaments, cartilages, meniscus, synovial membrane and fluid that facilitates movement in the joint. Joint diseases are disorders that affect the joints. They occur due to joint overuse or spontaneous injuries such as an injury during sports or from an accident. Joint disorders include osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, gout and Bursitis. This paper will discuss the pathophysiology, treatment, and therapeutic options for osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis is the deterioration of joint tendons and the underlying bone. The wearing causes it out of the cartilage between bones. It is common to individuals of middle age and above. The predisposing factors to the disorder are age, weight, family history, participation in sports that affect joints directly, and the regularity and strength of joint activity (Lespasio et al., 2017). It mainly affects the hip, knees, hands, and spine joints. The symptoms of osteoarthritis include pain during the movement of affected joints, tenderness when pressure is applied near affected joints, inflexibility, inflammation, and bone spurs.
Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve pain caused by osteoarthritis. It eases mild to chronic pain and inflammation. It acts as a non-selective inhibitor of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which triggers the production of prostaglandins through the arachidonic acid passageway, a component that causes pain and inflammation. The pain-relieving and inflammation-reducing component of ibuprofen is effected by its ability to inhibit the enzyme COX (Sun, Zhang &Li, 2017).
A patient may require close monitoring after using ibuprofen if they experience chest pains, shortness of breath, inaudible speech or feebleness in one side of the body. The side effects of ibuprofen include ulcers, holes in the stomach or intestines and bleeding. They are more rigorous for patients who have had a history of heart attack ulcers and bleeding in the stomach or intestines. Patients should inform doctors if they are under medication such as aspirin, anticoagulants or steroids such as dexamethasone.
Healthcare practitioners should educate victims of osteoarthritis on its implications and management. They should also inform them of the side effects of drugs and the impacts of taking certain therapeutic routes. Evidence reveals that carrying out physical exercise helps in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Both land and water-based activities effectively improve such patients’ conditions (Maheu, 2019). Other effective methods include pain relievers, oral analgesics and NSAIDs. Loss of weight, especially for obese patients, healthy eating, supportive attire such as shoe inserts, braces and orthotics, and intra-articular injection therapies. Surgery is also an option but is carried out when medication is ineffective.

Lespasio, M. J., Piuzzi, N. S., Husni, M. E., Muschler, G. F., Guarino, A. J., & Mont, M. A. (2017). Knee osteoarthritis: a primer. The Permanente Journal, 21.
Maheu, E., Bannuru, R. R., Herrero-Beaumont, G., Allali, F., Bard, H., & Migliore, A. (2019, February). Why we should definitely include intra-articular hyaluronic acid as a therapeutic option in the management of knee osteoarthritis: results of an extensive critical literature review. In Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism (Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 563-572). WB Saunders.
Sun, F., Zhang, Y., & Li, Q. (2017). Therapeutic mechanisms of ibuprofen, prednisone and betamethasone in osteoarthritis. Molecular medicine reports, 15(2), 981-987.


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