How does the scientific method point towards truth?



How does the scientific method point towards truth?
How does the scientific method point towards truth?
How does the scientific method point towards truth? What is truth, and how do you know when you have found it?

PSY 550 Week 1 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

Contrast deductive and inductive reasoning, and explain how they can each be used to generate a hypothesis.

PSY 550 Week 2 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU

Define reliability and validity in your own words. Briefly describe the different types of reliability and validity, including why it is important to conduct a study that is reliable and valid.

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PSY 550 Midterm Exam Latest-GCU

Question 1

For each of the research topics listed below, indicate the type of nonexperimental approach that would be most useful and explain why.

1. Pushing ahead in line

2. Daydreaming

3. Locating the most popular painting in an art gallery

4. Studiousness in college students

5. Determining whether a particular patient has improved with psychotherapy.

Question 2

List the main sections (and subsections) of a research report.

Question 3

Compare and contrast the following terms: (a) test-retest reliability with inter-rater reliability, (b) content validity with both predictive validity and construct validity, and (c) internal validity with external validity. ·

Question 4

Define and describe the six steps of the scientific method. Give an example of each step.

Question 5

When designing survey questions, how would you control for each of the following response styles:

(a) willingness to answer,

(b) position preference, and

(c) yea- or nay-saying?

Question 6

Use Stevens’ model of measurement scales to answer these questions:

1. What type of scale is used when the variable is social class? Explain.

2. What type of scale is used when the variable studied is a Top 40 list of popular songs? Explain.

3. What type of scale is used when the variable studied is intelligence scores (for example, on the Stanford-Binet-R)? Explain.

4. What type of scale is used when the variables studied are low and normal birth weights of newborns? Explain.

Question 7

Contrast experimental with quasi-experimental methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?

Question 8

When is it appropriate for a researcher to use deception in a study? When is it not appropriate? How can the negative effects of deception be minimized?

Question 9

Researcher Sandy Beach found a correlation coefficient of +2.3 between variables X and Y. She is thrilled because that correlation is “like, way high.” She also feels that this answer “proves that X is like, causing Y.” What are three problems with Sandy’s conclusions?

Question 10

Contrast probability and nonprobability sampling methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?

PSY 550 Week 2 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

Stanley Milgram’s obedience to authority experiment is one of the most controversial studies in psychology’s history. Considering this example as well as others, critique such experiments from an ethical standpoint.

PSY 550 Week 3 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU

Discuss the proper placement and usages of a table and a figure within the manuscript.

Define the four general writing guidelines using APA style. Why is it important to write using these guidelines when communicating your study? Explain.

PSY 550 Week 3 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

Discuss what stage in the publication process should potential authors talk about publication credit. Explain.

Describe how the sections of a poster, for presentation, are organized.

PSY 550 Week 4 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU

In your own words, define naturalistic observation. Discuss examples of when a naturalistic observational study would be the most appropriate design to select. What are two sources of bias during an observation period?

PSY 550 Week 4 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following nonexperimental research methods: (a) naturalistic observations, (b) surveys, and (c) correlational studies. If you were asked to use one of these designs in a study next week, which nonexperimental design would you select and why?

PSY 550 Week 5 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU

One of the best-known longitudinal designs is Lewis Terman’s study of giftedness. He began tracking gifted children into adolescence and adulthood in 1925; the study is supposed to conclude in 2020. Explain the unique benefits of such a study, and then explain the problems caused by this type of design.

PSY 550 Week 5 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

Explain the circumstances when a quasi-experimental design would be preferable to a between-subjects design, but also discuss why an explanatory research method is superior to a predictive method.

PSY 550 Week 6 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU

Contrast the three types of factorial designs.

PSY 550 Week 6 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

Lay out the design for two between-subjects experiments: (a) an experiment involving an experimental group and a control group, and (b) a factorial design with three independent variables that have 3, 2, and 2 levels, respectively.

PSY 550 Week 7 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU

Suppose that, for at-test, your computed value fort is +3.28. The critical value oft is +2.048. Explain what this means. Do you reject the null hypothesis or not? Now suppose that you have 28 degrees of freedom and are using a two-tailed (nondirectional) test. Draw a simple figure to illustrate the relationship between the critical and the computed values oft for this result.

PSY 550 Week 7 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

Choose an article from the newspaper, an online source, or a magazine, then identify the descriptive statistics included in the article. Were the statisitcs appropriately described in the article? Explain. Discuss if the descriptive statistics used in your source supported the arguments made in it. Were the descriptive statistics misleading? Explain.

PSY 550 Week 8 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU

Design a 10-12 slide PowerPoint presentation (not including title and reference slides) focusing on the Research Proposal: Project Paper (submitted last week). Consider aforementioned elements in the Research Proposal:

1. Introduction/Hypothesis

2. Method

3. Results

4. Discussion

5. Figures and Tables (total of two from paper)

Make sure your reference slide matches the references from your proposal.

Include speaker notes below each content-related slide that represent what would be said if giving the presentation in person. Expand upon the information included in the slide and do not simply restate it. Please ensure the speaker notes include a minimum of 50 words.

PSY 550 Week 8 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

A researcher computed the F ratio for a four-group experiment. The computed F is 4.86. The degrees of freedom are 3 for the numerator and 16 for the denominator.

1. Is the computed value of F significant at p < .05? Explain. 2. Is it significant at p < .01? Explain.


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