Health Communication



Health Communication
Health Communication
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It’s a program for health promotion with this sequence

Some sources are attached you can follow what in the slides

Item of evaluation
1- Selecting project topic, it should be related to health
2- Write overall project goal

3- Write outcome objectives

4- Post situation and audience analysis
5- Post communication objectives
6- Post communication strategies
7- Post action and evaluation plans
8- Presentation
Evaluating Outcomes of Health Communication Interventions

Chapter 14

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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Overview/Objectives

Why, What and How We Measure
Evaluation Models and Tips
Case Studies
Linking Outcomes to Strategic Communication Programs
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

Why, What and How We Measure

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

The Language of Evaluation

Evaluation

Program Assessment

Metrics

Return on Investment (ROI)

Outcomes

Impact

Social Change Indicators and Social Impact

Behavioral Impact

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

11/14/2007

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Social Change and Behavioral Indicators

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013, figure 14.1. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

Why We Measure

Focus staff/partners/intended audiences on shared goals
Clarify program purposes, goals, and objectives
Identify and compare effective practices
Improve service delivery
Adjust program in progress by refining strategies/messages
Assess cost effectiveness of program
Assess program results/ROI
In public health communication, ROI = health or social behavior that leads to improved public health outcomes
Determine program reproducibility and sustainability/opportunities for scaling-up phase
Communicate results to key stakeholders/ audiences
Implement lessons learned from new models/strategies in future interventions
Compete for economic and human resources
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

11/14/2007

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Drawbacks of Evaluation

Cost
Time
Chance of measuring wrong variables and indicators
Questionable accuracy for programs with limited scope, reach and duration
Potential bias in evaluation method or tool
Hard to do if not planned ahead
Results that may be affected by independent influences on key audiences and program’s outcomes
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

11/14/2007

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Types of Evaluation

Formative
Before program development/implementation
Pre-testing
Process and Progress
Compares program’s implementation with original plan
Program reach
Progress monitoring/intermediate results
Summative (outcome or impact evaluation in different models)
Program’s impact in relation to program/outcome objectives (behavioral, social, organizational) and long-term communication objectives
Each type corresponds to a specific

research and monitoring phase

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

11/14/2007

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What’s Being Measured?

Process Evaluation/Intermediate Results

Message delivery: depth/extent, tone, frequency/ repetition, reach
Message retention: at what time intervals after the event?
Participation in an event: influential advocates/ endorsers, target population
Distribution of materials; number of follow up requests
Endorsement from third-party/KOLs
Ability to create alliances
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

11/14/2007

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What’s Being Measured?

Process Evaluation/Intermediate Results

Media reach: circulation, impressions
Inquiry for information: toll-free #, website visits
Ability to neutralize opposition
Short-term or intermediate changes in knowledge/ attitudes, skills, community participation levels, etc. (progress)
Summative Evaluation (also Outcome or Impact Evaluation)

Changes in attitude, knowledge, social norms, policies, health or social behavior
Refers to outcome and communication objectives
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

11/14/2007

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Summative Evaluation

“Evaluates program’s efficacy in relation to outcome and communication objectives initially established by the program” (R. Schiavo, 2007, p. 326)
Recognizes current emphasis on strategic behavior communications/behavioral impact
Measures extent to which change occurs
“In health communication programs, the primary objective is usually a health-related behavior.”
J. Bertrand, John Hopkins Center for Health

Communication, The Drum Beat, CI, 2005

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

11/14/2007

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Health Outcomes as a Complex and Multidimensional Construct

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013, figure 3.2. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

Evaluating Behavioral and Social Impact

Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

Assessing changes in individual, community, or social behavior requires:

Intensive effort in concentrated geographic area/time period
Front/back market research against
Tracking surveys
Other qualitative/quantitative measurements
Significant financial commitment
Only long-term efforts can generate sustainable behavioral and social results!
11/14/2007

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How We Measure

Qualitative Methods

In-depth interviews with members of intended audiences, program participants, or other key stakeholders before and after the program

Focus groups

Completion of evaluation forms after specific activities (for process evaluation only)

Evidence of endorsement, such as letters of support or actual program participation from key influentials (for formative and process evaluation only)

Panel studies, that is, pre- and post-intervention studies, which involve the same panel of key stakeholders or representatives of key groups and relevant communities

Community dialogue, public consultations, and other participatory research methods


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