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Obesity has become a significant concern in the healthcare system, and diet is the key contributing factor to obesity. Therefore, a healthy diet should be the primary requirement in reducing weight and improving overall health. The health life knowledge gap among patients and limited nursing education programs contribute to this condition. Nurses should work closely with patients to provide healthcare education that will help patients improve their nutrition habits and identify the challenges the patients face in maintaining a healthy diet. An education training program for nurses in outpatient settings regarding obesity and diet will allow nurses to advance their knowledge on the risk factors of obesity, the health conditions associated with obesity, and how to manage obesity (Mitchell et al. 2018).

Table of Contents Abstract 3 Introduction 5 Statement of Purpose 5 Theoretical Framework 5 Significance of Interpersonal Relations Nursing Theory 6 Metaparadigm Concepts in Interpersonal Relations Nursing Theory 6


The age of fast food and instant gratification brought about by the growth of technology has affected the general population in many ways. In America, obesity is becoming problematic, with a prevalence of 41.9%, as observed by 2020 (CDC, 2022). As a result, there is a need for nursing practice to take accountability in developing a relationship with collaborative patient care. Obesity can be a lifestyle disease. Therefore, All stakeholder participation must be considered a need to look at the four-metaparadigm perspectives in caregiving using a foundational basis in a theoretical framework. For this study, interpersonal relations in nursing theory will be discussed.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this project is to develop an educational training program for nurses in an outpatient setting to provide education regarding the importance of a healthy diet for patients with obesity.

Theoretical Framework

Many theories support the understanding of nursing concepts and thus form the basis and foundational elements of patient care. Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory is a theory formulated by a female nurse, Hildegard Peplau. Within the theory, Peplau describes the metaparadigm concept of nursing within the four sequential interpersonal relationships. They are foundational elements as orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution defined within nurse, health, patient, and environments aspects of nursing healthcare provision. As such, the theory emphasizes the importance of crosscutting issues and their effect on nursing care and patient wellness (Peplau, 2004).

It thus facilitates better planning to understand the complexities of issues underlying the patient’s conditions, which would hinder getting well. In recognition of this, this paper aims to bring to attention the definition of the metaparadigm concept of patient care within this theory by looking at its significance and interpersonal relationship as contextualization in patient care. At the same time, the paper will look at its actual application as employed in modern nursing care as a mainstream cultural competency component. The deliberate look of this theory within this aspect will facilitate a conclusion on the modern-day emphasis and necessitated patient-centered model of care.

Significance of Interpersonal Relations Nursing Theory

As a mother of nursing psychiatry, Peplau (2004) describes interpersonal relations as a conditional aspect that includes first the interaction of the nurse and patient. She points out that this is attained when understanding each patient’s condition is an experience that allows for improving nursing care (Peplau, 2004, p. x). Therefore, the focus in the definition of the theory begins with grasping the nurse and patient metaparadigm concepts as the interaction between patient and nurse makes the relationship personal. Similarly, considerable insights thus point out that the patient care process is personalized in a way that responsibility is both technical and emotional. Peplau (2014) explains that effective patient outcome delivery comes from trust in diagnostics and thus acceptance of health as an essential metaparadigm aspect.

Metaparadigm Concepts in Interpersonal Relations Nursing Theory

Thus, nursing can be defined based on culture and concrete work (Peplau, 2004, p. 5). Thus, it promotes health through appropriate methods and illness prevention by recognizing triggers for all patients (Riekert, 2021). Therefore, the nurse can only facilitate treatment and not make a diagnosis; hence, the critical aspect is ensuring that the environment is conducive and that communication in the relationship with patients is constant. This means the nurse favors patients’ understanding of their issues by explaining the problem and the treatment plan. This includes a preventive measure to ensure informed decision-making is enhanced and thus a partnership that, in essence, is therapeutic.

According to Hagerty et al., (2018), patient experiences reflect the quality of care and, within this, an investment that the nursing community at large contributes heavily. As such, following Peplau’s underpinning of patient care, nursing is the implementation of need-based healthcare delivery through the respectable promotion of perception and prevention of escalation of illness (Peplau, 2004, p. 9). Therefore, it can be said that the operational definition of nursing is ensuring that patient needs are met adequately and suitably hence unique to the patient. With that, a different relationship develops between nurse and patient.

In recognition, a person is operationally defined as an entity with individual preconceptions and mutual understanding of the nature of a medical issue and collaborates towards a productive solution. Therefore, this contextualizes the environment as conditions that allow for human processes that facilitate tendencies supportive of positive development to attain health (Peplau, 2004, p. 12). By this definition, health can operationally is defined as a symbolic future positive goal that is attained after effective healthcare hence instrumental for the person moving in the forward direction of wellbeing (Peplau, 2004, p. 13).


CDC. (2022). Overweight & Obesity

Hagerty, T. A., Samuels, W., Norcini-Pala, A., & Gigliotti, E. (2018). Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations: An alternate factor structure for patient experience data?  Nursing science quarterly,  30(2), 160-167.

Peplau, H. (2004). Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. Springer Publishing.

Riekert, S. A. (2021). The Home Healthcare Nurse: A Concept Analysis.  Home Healthcare Now,  39(4), 194-202.

Other 20 Potential Resources to be used

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2. Simonsmeier, B. A., Flaig, M., Simacek, T., & Schneider, M. (2021). What sixty years of research says about the effectiveness of patient education on health: a second order meta-analysis.  Health Psychology Review, 1-25.

3. Cheng, H., George, C., Dunham, M., Whitehead, L., & Denney-Wilson, E. (2021). Nurse-led interventions in the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in infants, children and adolescents: A scoping review.  International Journal of Nursing Studies,  121, 104008.

4. Robinson, A., Denney‐Wilson, E., Laws, R., & Harris, M. (2013). Child obesity prevention in primary health care: investigating practice nurse roles, attitudes and current practices.  Journal of paediatrics and child health,  49(4), E294-E299.

5. Gotwals, B. (2018). Self-efficacy and nutrition education: A study of the effect of an intervention with faith community nurses.  Journal of Religion and Health,  57(1), 333-348.

6. Aspry, K. E., Van Horn, L., Carson, J. A. S., Wylie-Rosett, J., Kushner, R. F., Lichtenstein, A. H., … & Kris-Etherton, P. (2018). Medical nutrition education, training, and competencies to advance guideline-based diet counseling by physicians: a science advisory from the American Heart Association.  Circulation,  137(23), e821-e841.

7. Sjunnestrand, M., Nordin, K., Eli, K., Nowicka, P., & Ek, A. (2019). Planting a seed-child health care nurses’ perceptions of speaking to parents about overweight and obesity: a qualitative study within the STOP project.  BMC public health,  19(1), 1-11.

8. Arnold, E. C., & Boggs, K. U. (2019).  Interpersonal relationships e-book: professional communication skills for nurses. Elsevier Health Sciences.

9. Martínez-Linares, J. M., Parra-Sáez, C., Tello-Liébana, C., & López-Entrambasaguas, O. M. (2019). Should we be trained to train? Nursing students’ and newly qualified nurses’ perception on good lecturers and good clinical preceptors.  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,  16(24), 4885.

10. Jones, K., Raynor, P., & Polyakova-Norwood, V. (2020). Faculty caring behaviors in online nursing education: An integrative review.  Distance Education,  41(4), 559-581.

11. Knopf, A., Budhwani, H., Logie, C. H., Oruche, U., Wyatt, E., & Draucker, C. B. (2021). A review of nursing position statements on racism following the murder of George Floyd and other Black Americans.  The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC,  32(4), 453.

12. Zeighami, R., Rafiie, F., & Parvizi, S. (2020). Concept analysis of empathy in nursing.  Journal of Qualitative Research in Health Sciences,  1(1), 27-33.

13. Hurley, J., Hutchinson, M., Kozlowski, D., Gadd, M., & van Vorst, S. (2020). Emotional intelligence as a mechanism to build resilience and non‐technical skills in undergraduate nurses undertaking clinical placement.  International Journal of Mental Health Nursing,  29(1), 47-55.

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15. Morley, G., Bradbury-Jones, C., & Ives, J. (2020). What is ‘moral distress’ in nursing? A feminist empirical bioethics study.  Nursing ethics,  27(5), 1297-1314.

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19. Peplau, H. (2004). Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. Springer Publishing Company.

20. Riekert, S. A. (2021). The Home Healthcare Nurse: A Concept Analysis.  Home Healthcare Now,  39(4), 194-202.

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