Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software,”



Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software,”

QUESTION
Read Chapters One through Twenty-Five of the “Code” textbook.
Type a roughly 9-page Analytical Summary of these 25 chapters (see https://classroom.synonym.com/write-nonfiction-book-summary-6209199.html for information about writing an analytical summary), with the following restrictions:
At least 3 pages that summarize analytically Chapters 1 through 8
At least 3 pages that summarize analytically Chapters 9 through 16
At least 3 pages that summarize analytically Chapters 17 through 25
Submit your completed analytical summary as a PDF file via the Moodle upload link associated with this assignment.
Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software,”

ANSWER
Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software,”

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Chapters Summaries
Since its initial publication in 1999, Charles Petzold’s book “Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software” has attempted to educate readers on the inner workings of computers’ hardware and software. As stated in the preface to the 2000 softcover edition, Petzold’s goal was for readers to “may even equal that of electrical engineers and programmers” in terms of understanding how computers work. To advance up each level in the hierarchy, as Petzold puts it, “the code structure is designed.” Consider a child who might try to connect with their best friend who lives across the street after their parents believe the child has gone to sleep. Petzold begins by teaching the basics of Morse code using a flashlight and the obvious approach of using a flashlight to transmit Morse code. On to the more difficult task of decoding codes using Braille when they become available (for example, shift characters and escape characters, which Braille includes). Despite the book’s apparent lack of focus on computers, this is a key feature of the book’s first section; rather than jumping right into how computer systems work, it begins at a very basic and interesting analogy level.
The first chapter of the book lays the ground for the application of Morse codes letters and how they can be applied in problem-solving using the analogies of the child seeking to communicate to the other. Different Morse codes are given as examples, like the more codes corresponding to the flashing of light and those representing Blinks, A for once, B for twice, and C for thrice, among other codes. From the Morse codes, effective human communication is established to form even better codes applicable in effective communication.
In the second chapter, the book highlights that invention of Morse codes is concurrent with the telegraph, citing that just like the former provides an introduction to a good set of codes, the telegraph is excellent in the introduction to the hardware found in the computer. Tables are provided for the explainer of codes that can be keyed into the telegraph; with every table having at least many codes enough to find all the sides and dashes codes. Morse codes are presented to contain 32 possible sequences with five dots and dashes. Although to ensure that all punctuation marks are accounted for, the system must be expanded to six. According to the second chapter, Morse codes are binary, which means they occur in two codes simply because the components of their structures are a dot and dash. Tech chapter presented a summary on the analysis of binary codes citing that it is a simple exercise called combinatory analysis, majorly involving small mathematics.
Chapter three is about Louis Braille, who was born and raised in Cpupvray France, a few miles east of Paris Having been blind after, he pointed a tool in the eye. Soldiers at that time could poke raised dots and dashes into the back of papers through the style of awl like the stylus, which Louis Braille strove to enhance the method and created his own in three years. Braille dots represent flat or raised binary codes. Braille has 64 codes. Remaining dots are analyzed later, but in the second grades, 3,4 5 and 6 dots are identified to have contraction and punctuation denoted. The following codes are integers when “blue ” isn’t part of a word. Six binary elements (dots) generate 64 potential codes. Many of these 64 codes are multipurpose. Escape codes enable you “escape” from normal code interpretation and change it.s later developed by Braille, who did it to ensure that better message conveyance was adopted. For example, adequate and longer texts could be conveyed now.
In chapter four it is highlighted how longer cables have more resistance; bigger wires need more electricity to “fill.” Ohm’s Law states that water flow through a pipe is proportional to its voltage and resistance. The major issue here is that, like Braille and Morse, the Flashlight demonstrates a similarity between binary codes and electric circuits, which is useful information in the study. In Chapter 5, flashlights may be insufficient for communication after dark, but they can be created with batteries, light bulbs, switches, and cables. A wired-up telegraph system can be used to communicate with pals across vast distances using Morse Codes. A light bulb in the house that controls a light bulb in another friend’s house is an example, and the red wires are known to flow electricity in the circuit. After establishing the common pats, it is easy to build a two-way Morse code system utilizing only the two wires over the fence of a friend’s house. Communication and its evolutions are highlighted here, with Morse codes originally employed in communication using merely a straight line from a flashlight. Even so, communication using wires is possible around irregular navigations such as corners, meaning that communication can be faster with longer strings. The solution to arising problems in this chapter is given that an entire computer can be built based on the clicking and clacking solutions for constructing telegraphs.
Chapter six presents how telegraphs allowed for the beginning of the adoption of modern ways of communication. It cites that before, the electromagnet controlled a pen used to draw data on paper. Then later, Morse codes could be transcribed by listening t the pen bounding. Using the telegraphs, the click clack transferred information. Consequently, the concept of repeater relays was understood as a switch that turned on and off through current. With such devices, the building of computers was becoming realistic. In chapter seven, numbers and abstract codes are presented dot be encountered daily. Although learning number is better when done in context. Numbers are presented as mostly abstract codes, which are encountered daily and regularly; for example, the Hindu Arabic system was presented in three different ways. The zero is presented as the most important invention used to ease numbers and operations, especially in multiplication and division. The current numbering system is not necessary for everyone. However, decimal notations are presented to be quite important in numbering systems and application components. In chapter eight, ten is presented as a most unprecedented number, which is why it is adapted based on zero. A decimal number is those with zeros at the ends. The rule of thumb states that the binary is composed of 1, followed by zeros. Multiplication of binary numbers is easy, making handling quite easy. For example, the next sixteen binary numbers can be written by repeating and outing one in front. Therefore, in binary numbers, every time changes occur between zero and 1, the wires are binary digits together with the current through them. Hence the binary system is a great gap filler between arithmetic and magnetism.
Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software,”
Chapters 9 to 16
Bits are often regarded as the most fundamental and fundamentally important building blocks of information. Multiple bits can be used to express information of a more complex nature. Any information that is capable of being compressed into fewer bytes is done so in the form of bits. For instance, a thumbs up or a thumbs down constitutes a boot. In binary, the number of these codes is expressed as an equation that reads as follows: 2 raised to the power of the number of bits included within the binary code. The Universal Product Code (UPC) is an example of binary code, despite the fact that at first glance it would not appear to be one. The Universal Product Code is represented as a series of package codes consisting of 95 bits, with each 7-bit code starting with 0 and finishing with 1. According to this system, each digit in the UPC corresponds to one of the noticeable vertical bars. It is required that each code in the UPC contain one bit in each seven-bit code. This requirement suggests that computers must assure parity between the first digits in order to correctly display characters of binary numbers. The binary numbers shown here can be used to represent a wide variety of things, including words, drawings, and more. Bits are represented as numbers at their most fundamental level, and every piece of information is provided in the form of bits based on the extent of that information. In chapter 10, the associated law acknowledges Socrates as a person. Because of his interactions with other people, Socrates can be considered a mortal. (S x M) = 0 indicates that Socrates did not have a mortal body. +, also known as union, stands for OR, whereas intersection represents AND. After a 1r negative sign, you are allowed to use the word NOT.
In this kind of algebra, letters are allocated integers. + means AND, so if both operands are 1, the result is 1. X means OR, so 0 = 0 and 1 = 1 are conceivable, A table summarizes OR. Imagine combining George Boole’s mathematics with electrical circuits. When both switches are closed, the lighting turns on (Petzold, 1999). A two-position switch can represent a bit: 0 implies “lightbulb is off,” and one means “switch is on.” Two switches in sequence provide logical AND. “Is either switch closed?” the lighting asks. Rewrite this table as Left, Right. Boole’s The Laws of Thought predates the incandescent lamp. Samuel Morse demonstrated telegraphy in 1844; an identical circuit might be wired today. The 19th century had no such circuits. In chapter eleven, logic gates are presented as block or pass for electric currents. 2 bits can be used to explain it through the 2-bit specification of white, black, tan, and other.
An example of how to wire relay can be done with a switch lamp and batteries, implying that at the closure of the switch, current passes through the coils. Relay logic examination is presented that when the first relay isn’t activated, current can travel; therefore, both relays must be active. At the end of the chapter, telegraphs need relays, and De Morgans laws are crucial in simplifying the Boolean expression to give circuit simplifications.
Chapter 12 discusses the binary adding machine, presenting addition as the most basic mathematical operation. Adding machine is presented in this chapter to work on amplification of binary digits operations for additions. An example is that an 8-bit machine is required to be built, but no fewer than 1444 relays are required, with 18 each with eight pairs of bits. Two main inputs are highlighted in the entire circuit. Digital Computers may no longer use relays anymore, but the building of an 8-bit adder requires 144 transistors, although the circuit can be microscopic. Chapter 13 talks about subtraction, which is different from subtraction because subtraction involves intrinsically different mechanisms to borrow and involves back the fourth kind of activity. A similar arrangement in binary is known as two’s complement. For the conversion of the triple digit negative numbers to the tenth complement, 999 is subtracted and one is added . Signed and unsigned binary integers are both possible. They are simply zeros and ones that reveal nothing about their sign or content. The result’s leftmost digit must be discarded; the rightmost 8 bits are identical to plus six.
The fourteenth chapter looks at feedback and flips flops, as well as the design of core units that may be used to measure oscillator speeds. It recognizes the presence of flip flips in a handful of the differences between the double NOR gates, which are frequently shown and labeled in a more traditional fashion. When both inputs are set to zero, its output indicates if Q was most recently set accurately or reset. This is a technique for ensuring that signals are precisely traced at their respective times (Petzold, 1999). With the exception of the inverted data signal, the behavior of the flip-flop circuit is identical to that of a regular R-S flip-flop. Its 8-bit latch may store bits at the same time. Each latch has two gates that may be used for NOR or AND. When the clocks shift from 0 to 1, the production of positive transitions and feedback upon feedback occurs. In the long term, more complex counters will become synchronous, which implies that all of the outputs will change at the same time. When you connect an oscillator to the Clock input of an 8-bit clock, the counter will tell you how many cycles the oscillator has performed since being connected to the input. The topic of study in Chapter 15 is bytes and hex, and it is discovered that complements may be used in the encoding of negative values in twos. When working with signed values of 8 bits, the binary representation of negative integers always begins with number 1. Because hexadecimal numbers all begin with one, two-digit signed integers in hexadecimal automatically starts by 8, 9, A, B, C, D, and F. This is because all hexadecimal numerals begin from one.
In chapter 16, an assemblage of memory is presented; in storing information in bits, there can be easy ways of ensuring more information is stored as in the same flip flop in chapter 14, although here, data is stored bit after bit. Data output is chosen from the eight latches using 8 to 1 selector. Through this methodology, a RAM array can be constructed, although in construction of RAM array which stores 8196 bits organized in 1024 values of each 8 bits. In RAMS, megabyte means 1024 megabytes. RAM is characterized as to be volatile, requiring a continual electric feed to maintain unit content inside the device.
Chapters 17 to 35
Chapter 17 addresses the issue of automation by suggesting automation of addition and subtractions using sophisticated machines. Instructions are given for starting and operating the halt instructions. Three 8-bit latches receive the data generated from the Code RAM array. Three bytes of instruction data are stored in each of these latches. It has been shown before that there are RAM arrays for both code and data. It’s now possible to store both data and instructions in the same RAM. Codes and data can be stored in the same RAM array. 0010h, 0000h, 0020hrs and 0030hrs are the times when data, instructions, additional structures and data begin. Halt at address 000Ch must be altered, as we know. Instead of using the Halt command, we can jump instead. Branches and Gotos is a term for this type of instruction. The Preset and Clear inputs of edge-triggered D-type flip-flops are used to do this. A wide range of problems may be solved using algorithms and programs; notwithstanding how complicated the software may appear to be.
Chapter 18 addresses the issue of From Abaci to Chips, which implies the instruments used to solve mathematical calculations make them a little bit easier. In the mid-1930s, computers added relays. Thirteen thousand relays powered the Mark II. Vacuum tubes link AND, OR, NAND, and NOR gates. Gates make adders, selectors, decoders, flip-flops, and counters. Vacuum tubes powered early computers. In 1956, transistor computers replaced tubes. Transistors give more logic gates in a smaller size, although linkages are still needed. Prewired transistors might simplify computer construction. Geoffrey Dummer suggested it. Hearing aids originally used ICs in 1964. Texas Instruments and Pulsar introduced calculators and digital timepieces in 1971. Eventually, it comes out that the speed of the processors affects the overall usefulness of the computer system, and any computers slower than the brain is regarded as useless. Computers should contain speedy microprocessors.
Chapter 19 of the book addresses the issue of two traditional microprocessors, implying that it consolidates all the components within the computer CPU. The purpose of the chip is revealed by inspecting its input and output signals. The 8080 microprocessor is capable of reading and writing 8-bit data. D0r-D7 signals are present on the chip. These are the chip’s only inputs and outputs. Two hundred fifty-six instructions may be stored in an 8-bit microcontroller.
Each instruction takes between 2 and 9 microseconds (millionths of a second). The 8080 isn’t any better than the computer in Chapter 17. The accumulator of the 8080, like that of Chapter 17, presents 8 bits. It has six registers of 8 bits each. H and L are unique registries. Moves a byte between registers. The HL registered as pairs and their addresses are stored together in HL as highlighted previously. There are various options. Another Move instruction is Move Immediate (VMI). The processors in modern technology apply techniques that improve speed in execution by having vast RAM arrays through more logic transistors and microprocessors. Chapter 20 addresses the ASCII and cast characters, implying that, Like Morse code, 5-bit codes don’t differentiate between capital and lowercase characters. Seven bits are needed to indicate English capitalization, lowercase, and punctuation (Petzold, 1999). The codes can be anything. 20h is the word-and-sentence separator characters have 1-byte codes; ideographs have 2-byte codes. Unicode can represent 65,536 characters. Unicode characters need two bytes. Unicode’s first 128 letters are the same as ASCII’s Latin Alphabet No. 1. (ALNA).On a punch card, codes are encoded by punching rectangular holes. 12-row and 0-row lowercase letters a through I correspond to codes 1001 for j through r and 1010 for s through z. Punctuation and control characters have EBCDIC codes. Unicode is recommended to improve character codes that do not allow instant acceptability.
Memory, unlike storage, does not lose its contents when the power is switched off; rather, it may be accessed again when the power is restored. A non-volatile storage device retains data until it is erased or rewritten. A microprocessor’s workings may reveal another difference. Getting data from disk storage into microprocessor memory becomes more difficult since the Signal always accesses memory rather than storage when sending data. In order to transport data from disk to memory, microprocessors must run a short program. When it comes to operating systems, Chapter 22 acknowledges that multitasking is more complicated than single-tasking operating systems like CP/M and MS-DOS. The file system becomes more complicated when numerous users want to access the same files at the same time. Memory management on the machine as a whole is affected by this. Chapter 23 discusses computer fixed and floating points, providing Coprocessor as an example. Programs for coprocessors are written in machine code. Few programmers utilized math coprocessors since they weren’t standard. Subroutines for floats were written by them.
Due to the rarity of a math coprocessor, it necessitated additional work. Support for 8087 chips necessitates additional work. Apps have been created. The math coprocessor should be used whenever possible. If not, then copy. 287 and 387 math coprocessors were built by Intel for the 286 and 386. In 1989, the 486DX from Intel featured a floating-point unit (FPU). In 1991, Intel offered a 486SX without the FPU for a lower price. In 1993, the integrated FPU in Pentium became widely used. An FPU can be found in the Motorola 68040, which was manufactured in the 1990s. There are two coprocessors for the Motorola 68k: Motorola 68881 and Motorola 68882. Floating-point is supported by PowerPC chips. Floating-point hardware is a favorite of assembly-language programmers. It is acknowledged in Chapter 24 that the use of ALGOL-like languages has kept focus on object-oriented languages, which are crucial in graphical operating systems. A full object-oriented programming language, Java is described as such in the final chapter that deals with the graphical revolution. Even though Java applications must be compiled, they often don’t produce machine code as a result of the compilation process. The Java byte codes are interpreted by a machine running the built Java software, which mimics the JVM. Even though the majority of this book has focused on the use of electricity to transmit signals and information along a wire, optical fibers are a more effective medium.

References
Petzold, C. (1999). Code: The hidden language of computer hardware and software (2nd ed., Vol. 1, Ser. 1). Microsoft Press.

Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software,”


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