Based on “Case Study: Fetal Abnormality” and the required topic Resources, write a 550-750 word reflection that answers the following questions:
What is the Christian view of the nature of human persons, and which theory of moral status is it compatible with? How is this related to the intrinsic human value and dignity?
Which theory or theories are being used by Jessica, Marco, Maria, and Dr. Wilson to determine the moral status of the fetus? What from the case study specifically leads you to believe that they hold the theory you selected?
How does the theory determine or influence each of their recommendations for action?
What theory do you agree with? Why? How would that theory determine or influence the recommendation for action?
Remember to support your responses with the topic Resources.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Applying the Four Principles: Case Study
Part 1: Chart (60 points)
Based on the “Healing and Autonomy” case study, fill out all the relevant boxes below. Provide the information using bullet points or a well-structured paragraph in the box. Gather as much data as possible.
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Patient Preferences
• The attending physician suggested immediate dialysis to alleviate James’ condition. At first, James’ kidneys only needed dialysis to relieve the fluid that had built up in his body.
• The physician asked the patient to return to the hospital later that week after the service (Varkey, 2021). The physician needed to examine the patient and ensure adequate treatment.
• Placed the patient under dialysis because the condition had deteriorated. The delay in receiving dialysis caused organ failure, whose solution is a transplant. Dialysis works till the time the patient receives an organ transplant.
• The nephrologist suggested the most probable donor as a twin brother. He would be a good match if Mike and Joanne consent to the transplant. • The patient’s parents invoked the principle of autonomy and decided to forego dialysis in place of healing through faith in God. The physician let them but requested their return to the clinic after the healing services.
• Bringing Mike back to the hospital after his condition worsened (Varkey, 2021). The parents decided to seek medical help when the condition worsened and did not object when James was placed on dialysis to save his life.
• James is a minor; hence the physician defers to the judgment issued by the parents to ensure health and wellness.
• Grappling with the decision to offer their other son’s kidney. Mike and Joanne struggle with the repercussions of their choices, yet they struggle with offering James’s twin brother’s kidney to save James’ life.
Quality of Life
Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy Contextual Features
Justice and Fairness
• The intention is to treat before the child’s condition deteriorates. James’ quality of life significantly reduced after the delay in dialysis, leading him to require immediate dialysis to preserve his life.
• James would also need continued dialysis while awaiting a kidney transplant within a year.
• The most probable match, Samuel, also James’ twin brother, is a minor and thus needs adult consent to donate his kidney.
• Even with a donor’s kidney, James could still have medical issues later in life, which would lead to a reduced quality of life. • James is a minor and relies on decisions issued by his parents. However, it was not fair to him to let his condition deteriorate to kidney failure in the first place.
• It would be unfair to let Samuel grow up without a twin brother simply because his parents could not decide to save James’ life; hence Mike and Joanne should consider Samuel when making the decision.
• Mike and Joanne are grappling with the desire to do what is right and ensure they demonstrate faith in God when they do it.
Part 2: Evaluation
Answer each of the following questions about how the four principles and four boxes approach would be applied:
1. In 200-250 words, answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, how would each of the principles be specified and weighted in this case? Explain why. (45 points)
According to the Christian worldview, beneficence is the most pronounced principle. Mike and Joanne chose to pray for James after the physician suggested dialysis. According to the Christian worldview, it is acceptable to put trust in God for healing. Should Mike and Joanne choose this, it will be up to God to choose what to do with James (Wilson, 2019). It is also an excellent decision to accept the treatment because organ donation is a subject with two different opinions. Accepting the treatment means they would be employing love to their neighbors, thus not breaking any law. Should Mike and Joanne accept this view, James would have a new kidney. However, some dispute transplantation deeming it interference in God’s will and that receiving or donating organs results in people breaking the wholeness as they were at birth (“Religion and organ donation,” 2017). James would die if Mike and Joanne chose this view and did nothing.
Nonmaleficence also follows after beneficence because Mike and Joanne sought to find a solution that would most benefit James while bringing the least harm, hence choosing faith over dialysis. Autonomy was also pronounced because they chose to express their desire to have a different treatment option other than the one recommended by the physician. Justice takes the least precedence because, according to the Christian worldview, as long as one’s actions were well-intended, the outcome.
2. In 200-250 words, answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, how might a Christian balance each of the four principles in this case? Explain why. (45 points)
Balancing each of the four principles, in this case, beneficence holds the most weight because the essence of Christianity is love for our neighbours. Mike and Joanna want to show love by ensuring James receives the best quality of care (Wilson, 2019). Closely following is autonomy because freedom is an aspect of Christianity that gets shown throughout the Bible, from the creation of man to the book of Revelations. Nonmaleficence follows after autonomy because doing good and having the freedom to do it confines one within the moral obligation of not causing harm to anyone. Justice in the Christian worldview dictates that all patients treated with the same level of respect, care, and resources are shared equally without having any preference. Ultimately, Christians believe that God gave life and has the power to take it; hence God’s will always precede, especially during trials and temptations.
Religion and organ donation. (2017, February 3). National Kidney Foundation. https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/religion-organ-donation
Varkey, B. (2021). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice, 30(1), 17-28. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509119
Wilson, D. (2019, July 12). What does the Bible say about healing? How can Christians pray for healing in a biblical way? Christianity.com. https://www.christianity.com/wiki/christian-life/what-does-the-bible-say-about-healing.html