Biology 169

Biology 169
Module 1 Discussion Board

Background information
Publications where scientists explain their research and findings are called journal articles. These articles include information on the research topic (what is currently known and the question the scientist is trying answer), the research methodology, and any results, which are used to answer the question. In the article, this information is organized into the following sections:
• Title: short statement that describes the question being answered
• Abstract: summary of the article
• Introduction: introduces the article and contains current information on what is known about the topic, which will lead to further explanation of the researcher’s question
• Methods: how the study was performed
• Results: data from the study – usually includes tables and graphs
• Discussion/Conclusion: interprets the results relating to the original question
• References: list of literary sources used in the article

Part 1: Initial post (60 points)
Your initial post (also called a response) will contain four parts which are explained below. Please be sure to number each part in your post.

1) Go to the website “Science in the Classroom” and pull up the annotated article “You are what you eat…at least, your brain is”: in new window). For this assignment, you will focus only on the ABSTRACT.

• On the left side of the website, you will see a gray box titled “learning lens.” Click on the yellow box beside “glossary” (a check will appear). This will highlight specific terms in yellow. List and define the terms that are highlighted in the abstract only (there are 7 total).

2) After reading, summarize the abstract using your own words. If you need any help with this, feel free to contact me. There is no word limit for this part.

3) List one thing that you found difficult to understand (or are still having difficulty understanding…this is ok! There are times when even scientists struggle with reading parts of an article.) Explain why you found this difficult (i.e. was it terminology, are some of the topics unfamiliar, etc?).

4) Create a citation for the article (be sure to use the information in the “paper details” section of the website – the annotated article title isn’t the original title). Feel free to use either MLA or APA format. If you need a refresher on how to create a citation, please visit the following websites:

• APA formatting: (opens in new window)
• MLA formatting: (opens in new window)
• FTCC Library: (opens in new window)
Biology 169

Biology 169

Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course Code and Name
Professor’s Name

Biology 169
The blood-brain barrier is made up of a highly selective semipermeable membrane of endothelial cells to prevent the solutes from mixing with the extracellular fluid of the central nervous system.
Brain parenchyma is a functional tissue in the brain. It consists of collagen proteins and two brain cells: neurons and glial cells.
If an organism is free from all microorganisms, especially those from the gut, it is termed Germ-free mice.
Pathogen-free mice can also be called germ-free mice. These mice are usually induced or given one or more known non-pathogenic microorganisms.
Organisms and bacteria which live in the intestines and assist in breaking down food particles during food digestion are the Gut flora.
A tight junction connects the outer layers of the cell membranes of epithelial cells to lower the chances of large water molecules passing in between cells.
If the peripheral organ molecules are exposed to the brain, they become toxic. The BBB permeability helps to curb the exposure.
Various researchers state that the blood-brain barrier is a semipermeable membrane of endothelial cells that prevents the peripheral organ cell fluid from mixing with the extracellular neutron fluid found in the central nervous system. Biga (2020) stipulates that the brain is a functional tissue that contains various cells such as collagen proteins, neurons, and glial cells. Although the cellular fluid from the peripheral organs is non-toxic, it becomes toxic if exposed to the brain neutrons (Tortora and Derrickson, 2018). Additionally, axenic mice are exposed to various non-pathogenic microorganisms. Welsh (2019) acknowledges that the intestines host bacteria and other organisms to help digest food. The primary function of a tight junction between cells is to prevent the movement of large water particles in between cells (Jenkins 2016). Even though pathogen-free mice are difficult to understand, their role and germ-free mice aren’t easily distinctive.

Tortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. H. (2018). Principles of anatomy and physiology. John Wiley & Sons.
Jenkins, G., & Tortora, G. J. (2016). Anatomy and physiology. John Wiley & Sons.
Biga, L. M., Dawson, S., Harwell, A., Hopkins, R., Kaufmann, J., LeMaster, M., & Runyeon, J. (2020). Anatomy & physiology. OpenStax & Oregon State University.
Welsh, C. T. (2019). Microbiology: a laboratory manual. Pearson.

Biology 169

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