Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography
NSG 6101 Week 1 Annotated Bibliography

Hi, I have really appreciated your work and I hope you keep it up. I will be assigning all my discussions and projects for this course to you so you can keep up with it. Please don’t fail me. Communication is very important to me.

NSG 6101 Week 1 Assignment 1 Annotated Bibliography
South University

The purpose of the research conducted by Nelson, Herald, & Wein was to determine how staffing of registered nurses in the Emergency Department affect patient experience and satisfaction. The study obtained data from March 2015-Novemeber 2015 from a Level 1

Question is

NSG 6101 Week 1 Annotated Bibliography: Quantitative Annotated Bibliography
In this week’s discussion question you were asked to consider a potential problem (appropriate to your role option) that you would like to investigate through nursing research. For this assignment you will review current research from South’s Online Library and provide a critical evaluation on that research through an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography is a brief summary and analysis of the journal article reviewed. For more information on annotated bibliographies please visit Purdue’s OWL: Purdue Online Writing Lab

A total of two annotated bibliographies are to be submitted (not to exceed one page each). The articles must come from nursing scholarly literature and may not be older than 5 years since publication. Please note that the articles must be research based and reflect a quantitative methodology (review our reading assignments). Web pages, magazines, textbooks, and other books are not acceptable.

Each annotation must address the following critical elements:

Explanation of the main purpose and scope of the cited work
Brief description of the research conducted
Value and significance of the work (e.g., study’s findings, scope of the research project) as a contribution to the subject under consideration
Possible shortcomings or bias in the work
Conclusions or observations reached by the author
Summary as to why this research lends evidence to support the potential problem identified specific to your role option.
NSG 6101 Week 2 Assignment 2 Annotated Bibliography
South University

The purpose of this study was to describe emergency department physicians and nurses perceptions of patient safety risks. The study was carried out in two emergency departments by conducting semi-structured interviews. The interviews were to determine RN and physician perceptions of patient safety risks in the ED. The participants included 10 nurses and 10 physicians all of which have at least three years of experience. Each interview was audio-recorded and transcribed by interviewers and then analyzed by using inductive content analysis..

NSG 6101 Week 3 Assignment 3 Research Proposal
South University

Background of the Problem
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Problem
Purpose of the study
Research Question
Research Hypothesis
Study Variables
NSG 6101 Week 4 Assignment 2 Literature Review
South University


​There is a vast amount of research that has been conducted studying the effects of nursing workload and nurse staffing and the effects it has on adverse patient outcomes and patient safety. However, much of this research focuses on the inpatient hospital setting and little to no research studies have been done to determine the effect of nursing workload on patient safety in emergency departments. The emergency department is the front line to most hospitals, it is important that when patients come to the ED they are receiving the most safe and efficient care. Due to the high volumes of patients in the ED and unknown patient acuity at a given time, the ED needs to be staffed with enough nurses to handle the patient load safely. The purpose of this research study is to determine if adequate staffing of registered nurses in emergency department results in a decrease of reported medical errors when compared to when the department is inadequately staffed. In this literature review I will discuss how nursing workload may lead to adverse patient outcomes and perceptions of nurses in relation to how staffing can affect patient safety.

Literature Review


NSG 6101 Week 5 Assignment 2 Theoretical Framework
South University

​There is a lack of theories that explain the impact of staffing and nursing workload in acute care organizations. One role of administration is to make decisions regarding staffing the organization, and theories are needed to help guide management. Sieloff & Ralph states “nursing management theories exist for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting or prescribing nursing acts” (p.979)…

NSG 6101 Week 6 Assignment 1 Research Methodology
South University

​The sample setting of this research is important as the results will either disprove or prove the hypothesis, that nursing workload affects patient safety and the number of medical errors. The problem directly affects the outcomes of patients and the care that is delivered…

NSG 6101 Week 7 Assignment 2 Research Proposal: Methodology



Description of the Intervention

Data Collection Procedures

NSG 6101 Week 8 Assignment 1 Research Proposal: Data Analysis
South University

Data Analysis

​Over a 30-day time period staffing measures and reported medical errors will be observedfrom five hospital emergency departments. Nurses working in each emergency department will be surveyed regarding their perception of medical error occurrence and their level of nursing workload on their last shift worked. The purpose of this study was to determine if the rate of medical errors decreased when staffing level were adequate compared to rate of medical errors when staffing levels were less than adequate. Studies and evidence have linked a shortage in nurse staffing to higher hospital mortality rates. (Griffiths et al, 2016)

Demographic Variables

Study Variable

The Research Ethics Committee
The course is very educative and enlightening. It gives insight to the learner about the actual responsibilities of the Research Ethics committee. Also, the learner can get detailed guidelines offered by the council in a given medical facility. I work in one of the acute care facilities in the downtown of history, and in this facility, the research process that involves human participants is conducted in several ways by the REC that has been established in the institution (Humphreys, 2016). The committee holds meetings frequently and may call upon some researchers to attend these meetings which provide their research procedures to them. In some cases, the board carries out some interviews with human participants to get the required information. The said Committee then reviews every single proposal on human subjects ensuring that all participants are protected regarding safety and their welfare (Humphreys, 2016). Before subject recruitment and information gathering at the St Joseph Centre, all the subject researches are reviewed and approved by the IRB.

The REC in the facility is composed of several scientists and some lay members who do the reviewing of the frequent activities of the institution. It is essential that the lay persons are available to be able to offer more information about the concerns of the society and deliver their opinions on the issue in discussion (Humphreys, 2016).

The members of the Research Ethics Committee at St Joseph’s Medical Centre do meet according to the required Federal Guidelines because they can review the proposals brought before them on time. Also, with regards to the issues raised, they can ensure reduction of the risks that the participants are exposed to (Humphreys, 2016). Equally, they make sure that the participants’ benefits are well distributed. Through them, the privacy of participants is provided, and the required information is obtained.


Humphreys, S. (2016). Research ethics committees: The ineligibles. Research Ethics, 174701611246697.

2) The NIH “Protecting Human Research Participants” discusses how humans are being protected when participating on research. There are ethical principles and a law, National Research Act (Pub. L. 93-348) that has to be followed. Basic ethical principles include: Respect for persons, Beneficence, and Justice. Respect for persons by respecting their self-autonomy and self-determination, upon participating on any research or making any kind of decision, a person should be respected no matter what the decision and outcome maybe. Beneficence comes in place when decisions was not only made but also protect or make effort to securing the safety of the well-being. Justice, “fairness in distribution” should always take place and that every single one of patients should be treated equally.

I currently work as a full-time employee on an Assisted Living Program. It is in between Independent Living and Assisted Living Residence. Our residents are cared for based on their level of care assessments and are treated fair and equally. As a Director of Nursing I make sure that all our residents are provided with HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) which is “a set of national standards for protection of certain health information” We may not have or use IRB, HIPAA is used to protect the safety of our residents information most especially the ones who are affected by any mental or neurological problems.

We have all heard the saying where there is good there is evil. With that being said the NIH “Protecting Human Research Participants informs on measures in place to protect participants from harm while participating. It is unethical to use participants as a means to an end and not consider their welfare. The relationship between those conducting the study and those participating should be based on honesty, respect, and trust. I was shocked to learn of the Nazi Medical War Crimes. I had never heard of this before and I was appalled that physicians would subject human beings to this kind of torture in the name of research. I also learned through the course what the first international standard for conduct of research was. This was the Nuremberg Code. This code provided ten directives when experimenting on humans. Some of the studies this course discusses just angers me that people would be so cruel and heartless in the name of medical advancement. The Willowbrook study sticks out in my mind. Totally unethical to subject children to this type of experimentation and to coerce the parents into thinking allowing their children’s participation would be a good thing was immoral. As I continued the course I was surprised that so many regulations and changes have been made to protect individuals from harmful testing. I was also amazed that some of these regulations are really in-depth trying to tackle many different angles and aspects involved in medical testing.
I currently work at a local outpatient dialysis clinic. I work through Fresenius Medical Care and they are worldwide. I am not aware of how they conduct current research. I did however do a google search and found some informative information concerning the company. In North America alone, Fresenius Medical Care’s research efforts involve the contributions of more than 1,200 employees, and the company’s contract clinical research division comprises a network of over 450 principal investigators at more than 260 sites representing 160 medical practices (Business Wire). Frenova traces its beginnings back to 2000, when Fresenius Medical Care North America (FMCNA), the world’s largest provider of dialysis services for patients with end stage renal disease, centralized the clinical research function to orchestrate all research activity in its facilities (Frenova Renal Research). The research this company conducts focuses on chronic kidney disease and adjacent medical conditions. There are seven aims for research with Fresenius. They include using science and technology to characterize and improve patient outcomes driving advancements in management paradigms through value based care models, using predictive modeling for clinical decision support and better outcomes, characterizing the impacts of CKD options education on outcomes and modality selection, leveraging coordinated care initiatives to improve patient outcomes, defining outcomes related to the management of bone mineral metabolism in renal disease, and identifying the influences of social determinants of health on clinical measures (Business Wire). I am unsure if Fresenius has an IRB but they do have an ethics committee. The clinical science and epidemiology group consist of Norma Ofsthun, PhD, Vice President Data Analytics-Reporting, Algorithms & Research, Len Usvyat, PhD, Vice President Integrated Care Analytics & Research and Kevin Chan, MD, Senior Director, Analytical Research. The Frenova Research Leadership consists of Kurt Mussina, BS, MBA, Vice President, General Manager, Ann Mooney, MSN, RN, CNN, Senior Director,Clinical Operations; Brigid Flanagan, MS, RN, CCRC, Senior Director, Clinical Development, Russell Smith, BS, MBA, Senior Director, Business Operations, Christina Marie Kahn, BS, CCRP Director, Frenova Site Innovation. They do meet federal guidelines in their research.

Question Description

Part I

Using the internet and the SUO Online Library, conduct a basic Internet search to find résumés and articles from your degree field and information about the field. If you cannot find an article about your degree field, perhaps you could find an article by someone in the field.Post a discussion below that includes the following components:Identifies the career you chose and explains why you chose it.Shares two references from the Internet and two references from the SUO Online library that you looked at. Include the URL and the publication, title, author, and date published if available. Remember you can access your South University Online Library resource on citation help by clicking on Library, Library Homepage, Copyright & Citation Help, Citation Help, for extensive resources on APA. Also, please contact the Online Librarian (Ask a Librarian) or your instructor should you have questions.Explain what search terms you used and the criteria you used to determine if the information was credible.Compare your experience searching on the Internet and searching in the Online Library. Please try advanced search options and report on them. This can be very eye opening. Note that from this week on throughout your college career, the grading criteria that mentions information literacy includes the requirement of providing references in APA format to support your ideas. Part II Using one of the articles you identified in your Internet or library search, do the following: Copy and paste an example of a paragraph from one of your resources. Any directly copied information needs to be in quotation marks. Include an in-text citation for this paragraph—see the example below. (n.d. stands for no date) One recruiter’s advice is simple: Don’t obsess over the skills section to the point of embellishment. “In adding a skills section to their résumé, a lot of people have a tendency to exaggerate their level of expertise in various technologies,” says Scott Hajer, senior corporate recruiter for Software Architects. Hajer continues, “They figure the more keywords, the more exposure” (Hoffman, n.d., para. 3). “Although many people think that the more keywords in their résumé, the better, it isn’t good to exaggerate your technology skills so only include keywords for skills that you already have” (Hoffman, n.d.).Include the full reference at the bottom of your posting. In reality, you would only have either a quotation or paraphrased information, not both. Paraphrasing is what you strive for in college with an in-text citation which will lead you to the full reference on

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