Administrative versus biomedical ethical issues



Administrative versus biomedical ethical issues
QUESTION
2. What is the difference between administrative and biomedical ethical issues. (2 paragraphs–including in-text citations and references in proper APA format)

3. List the steps to managers’ problem solving methodology? (refer to week 1.) (1 paragraph including in-text citations and references in proper APA format)

4. When might an ethics audit be necessary? Briefly describe the three steps associated with it. (1 paragraph including in-text citations and references in proper APA format)

5. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) is a well-know health services management professional association. According to the ACHE, explain the responsibility/ obligation of a health care executive. (2 paragraphs including in-text citations and references in proper APA format)

6. What is the fiduciary responsibility of health care executives and managers. (2 paragraphs including in-text citations and references in proper APA format)

7. Describe at least three examples of conflicts of interests. Explain how conflicts of interests can present ethical dilemmas for managers/ executives. (3 paragraphs including in-text citations and references in proper APA format)
8. Read the case study below and answer the following questions. (1 1/2 – 2 pages including in-text citations and references in proper APA format). Your answers to each question should be based on your reading of Darr. If necessary, you may refer to the text. Your answers should demonstrate your understanding of the terms as well as your ability to apply them to the case of Baby K (given the limited facts provided.) 1)Discuss what makes this an ethical dilemma. 2)Discuss the implications of this study in terms of the moral principles described in chapter 1. Respect for persons: Did the hospital/ physicians allow the parents to be autonomous in their decision-making? Do you see any elements of paternalism on behalf of the physicians? Beneficence: Did the hospital/ physicians act beneficently? Nonmaleficence: Did the hospital/ physicians consider nonmaleficence? Justice: Did the hospital act in a just way? Baby K was born at Fairfax Hospital in Northern Virginia on October 13, 1992. Although her face was beautiful, the top of her head was flat. She had no brain The baby’s mother knew from the 16th week of her pregnancy that Baby K’s brain had not developed. Baby K had no cerebrum and no cerebellum, but she did have a normal brain stern. The mother was told that babies with “anencephaly”- from the Greek words for negative (an) and brain (enkephalos) – cannot see, hear, or feel anything no matter how long they live. Baby K would have no thoughts, and she would never achieve “personhood.” If she were born alive, her brain stem would prompt her heart to beat and her lungs to pump air in and out of her body. Baby K, like other babies with anencephaly, would be “born dying” but would not be technically brain dead. Anencephaly is one condition, perhaps the only one, that all doctors agree is futile to treat. The general consensus among medical, legal, and other experts is that heroic measures should not be used to keep such babies alive. But Baby K’s mother balked. She wanted to keep her baby alive no matter what the cost. She was motivated by a strong and sincerely held religious belief that “all life is precious” and that a higher being, rather than herself or the doctors or the law, should decide how long her baby would live. Baby K held on (most babies with anencephaly die within the first few days of their lives) and finally left the hospital when she was seven weeks old. No neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would accept her, so she went to a nursing home.
Administrative versus biomedical ethical issues

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2. Administrative versus biomedical ethical issues
The healthcare sector experiences a significant association between the administrative and biological issues; their issues may be interrelating, but other factors such as dilemmas differ. The administrative and ethical issues related to the executives in any institutions they work in and stay active in exercising power (Demirtas et al., 2015). Numerous morality issues can arise, such as sexual harassment, which is unacceptable in an organization, and the ones responsible for solving it are the administrative and ethical issues.
The biomedical issues cover and protect the scientific research within the healthcare sector, although they may require tough decisions because it directly impacts the patient’s life. This section contains the consent sought from patients and how they significantly impact the patient’s issues. The nature of moral dilemmas in patients may prompt stress and emotional breakdowns. For example, when a toddler patient is treated in a way that their communal beliefs do not accepts, yet the parents are comfortable may bring biomedical issues (Liso et al., 2017).
References
Demirtas, O., Hannah, S. T., Gok, K., Arslan, A., & Capar, N. (2015). The moderated influence of ethical leadership, via meaningful work, on followers’ engagement, organizational identification, and envy. Journal of Business Ethics, 145(1), 183–199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2907-7
Liso, A., Neri, M., Maglietta, F., La Russa, R., & Turillazzi, E. (2017). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A bioethical lens. Stem Cells International, 2017, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1286246

3. How managers solve problems, steps to problem-solving methods
In problem-solving for the manager, five core steps are followed; the first is to look at the overall structure of the issue at hand and any essential part that has to be sorted out. It is followed by assessing the components of the problem. This assessment process is essential because it enables numerous listing solutions, which one is better than the other, and the reasons through contrast (Stević et al., 2020). Justification followed the initial stage because three must be a moral explainer that justifies why ethical standards are embraced. In the second phase, the team decides on which decision to pick and how it will be implemented, even if there are further better options. Further investigation is essential to answer any unresolved questions.
References
Stević, Ž., Pamučar, D., Puška, A., & Chatterjee, P. (2020). Sustainable supplier selection in Healthcare Industries using a new MCDM method: Measurement of alternatives and ranking according to compromise solution (Marcos). Computers & Industrial Engineering, 140, 106231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2019.106231
4. Steps involved in ethic audit and its importance
The ethical audit is a technique by the leaders that they use to explore several dilemmas that are bound to arise on ethical issues within the hospital. It is always done to ensure that ethical standards are highly maintained within the hospital. Its main methodology is to compare the current achievement of the hospital to what it planned before as a target. After that, all the necessary documents are reviewed and associated with the appropriate policy and procedure, which occur in the initial stages of an ethical audit (Thoral et al., 2021). Later, the proper assessment is done to check if the decisions and the ethics are consistent with company values; in the end, all the information gathered is used to check any potential disparity that exists or has been created.
References
Thoral, P. J., Peppink, J. M., Driessen, R. H., Sijbrands, E. J., Kompanje, E. J., Kaplan, L., Bailey, H., Kesecioglu, J., Cecconi, M., Churpek, M., Clermont, G., van der Schaar, M., Ercole, A., Girbes, A. R., & Elbers, P. W. (2021). Sharing ICU patient data responsibly under the Society of Critical Care Medicine/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Joint Data Science Collaboration. Critical Care Medicine, Publish Ahead of Print. https://doi.org/10.1097/ccm.0000000000004916
5. What are the responsibilities of healthcare executives
From the ACHE, American college of healthcare executives, the CEOs are entitled to analyze every challenging circumstance and make the right choices based on their moral values. These healthcare organizations are led by the executives who should be the hospital role models who strive to uphold their consistency and truthfulness as an organization for much decency (Ndlovu et al., 2020). The executives are entitled to ensure that every worker is highly respected and valued within their system of rules and portray those values. Thus executives automatically are responsible for carrying out several responsibilities, which are all meant to uphold ethical standards within the healthcare context. The whole process is meant to examine any potential unethical behavior within the hospital, including fraud, power misuse, and the ethical problems common to the workplace. Overall, the hospital has to adopt strict and fair standards for the challenges and ethical issues to avoid much time spent solving the problems if the rules are present.
References
Ndlovu, M., C. Maramura, T., & Enaifoghe, A. (2020). Understanding the moral and ethical leadership challenges in South African Public Service : The case of the Eastern Cape, Department of Education. Journal of Nation-Building & Policy Studies, 4(2), 21–42. https://doi.org/10.31920/2516-3132/2020/v4n2a2
6. Fiduciary roles performed by healthcare executives
When one individual or organization depends on another to act in their best interests, the relationship creates a fiduciary duty. According to Zaman et al. (2021), they have a responsibility to exercise the level of caution, expertise, and effort warranted by the circumstances. They are accountable for minimizing the possibility of making mistakes in their decisions and the actions they choose to carry out. It is the responsibility of the individual giving medical care to patients to inform the patients of the reality of the situation and make sure that the patient is well informed about the treatment plan and any therapies being administered. Due to the fiduciary obligations that fall on their shoulders as management and leadership in the medical field, managers can be required to make challenging choices about whether or not to disclose potentially harmful errors. It is essential to place limits on public disclosure of medical mistakes for as long as new policies and procedures are being developed to reduce the likelihood of future mistakes. Patients, staff, and the organization all benefit from this development. The patients, the personnel, and the company may all reap the benefits of this.
References
Zaman, R., Atawnah, N., Baghdadi, G. A., & Liu, J. (2021). Fiduciary duty or loyalty? evidence from co-opted boards and corporate misconduct. Journal of Corporate Finance, 70, 102066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2021.102066
7. Conflict of Interest in Healthcare
Even though the formation of possible conflicts of interest can be a gradual process, the potential consequences for the healthcare sector organization in which they occur have the potential to be significant. A conflict of interest occurs if the commitments or interests of two or more individuals are in direct opposition to one another. One example of this would be when a decision-maker at one company, such as a director, simultaneously occupies a decisive role at another institution where the first company does business (Correll, 2017). An ideal illustration of this would be a biomedical researcher hired by a hospital who has links to another research organization.
Conflicts of interest amongst personnel are a typical source of friction in the workforce and can have negative repercussions. Having family members working for the same company might lead to various conflicts of interest. An individual that exemplifies this trait is obedient to their boss yet retains control over their job, salary, and potential for advancement in their career. Because senior management has to be ready to identify and address any conflicts of interest, this situation has the potential to raise several ethical concerns. Managers and leaders are responsible for identifying possible conflicts and developing strategies to address them. Employees who are unaware that they possess a conflict of interest might unknowingly cause problems for their employer. Therefore, the leaders of the organization need to devise a strategy that is beneficial to all stakeholders, the institution, and any potential patients whose treatment could be jeopardized.
References
Correll, S. J. (2017). SWS 2016 feminist lecture: Reducing gender biases in modern workplaces: A small wins approach to organizational change. Gender & Society, 31(6), 725–750. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243217738518
8. Baby K case study
The character of the case involving Baby K presents us with a moral quandary. Keeping Baby K alive in the face of her inability to communicate verbally, visually, auditorily, or viscerally raises whether she is brain dead. According to the book, Anencephaly is the only medical condition that cannot be cured, and “heroic efforts to save such children are discouraged.” This is a condition on which all doctors agree. This should have been reported to an Infant Care Review Committee (ICRC). The hospital enlists the help of a third party to serve the child better. The “advocate” for the baby is a member of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Members of the ICRC include doctors, nurses, administrators, and lawyers (Vanni et al., 2017).
The hospital staff treated Baby K with kindness and respect. Even though the infant can act for himself, doctors told his family that treating him was pointless. This influenced the parents’ decision. In exchange for their trust, the hospital promised to save the baby. They decided to do this because the child was still alive. Benevolence is ambiguous in this context. Doing good and reviewing our actions are two ways to demonstrate goodwill. To meet their positive commitments, hospitals will do anything to keep a patient alive until they can leave. She was sent to a nursing home because no other NICUs would accept her after discharge. The hospital explained how they weighed the benefits and risks of complying with the parent’s request.
Rather than undergoing surgery to repair, Anencephaly is treated differently by doctors. They were willing to sacrifice their interests to avoid causing harm to the baby. As long as the child is alive, they may have waived their responsibility to protect him by agreeing to do so, but the same could be argued if they did not. I bring it to a close with a vengeance. Yes, she was well cared for. This is a no-brainer. Even though Baby K lacks self-awareness, they do everything they can to preserve it. Despite their parents’ warnings, they went ahead and did it. Baby K should not have been transferred to a nursing home after being discharged from the NICU because this facility primarily cares for very sick patients in their final stages of life. This, I believe, could have been improved.
References
Vanni, D., Palasciano, G., Vanni, P., Vanni, S., & Guerin, E. (2017). Medical doctors and the foundation of the International Red Cross. Internal and Emergency Medicine, 13(2), 301–305. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11739-017-1775-9

Administrative versus biomedical ethical issues


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