Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)



Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

QUESTION
Students must review the case study and answer all questions with a scholarly response using APA and include 2 scholarly references.

The answers must be in your own words with reference to the journal or book where you found the evidence to your answer. Do not copy-paste or use past students’ work as all files submitted in this course are registered and saved in turn it in the program.

Answers must be scholarly and be 3-4 sentences in length with rationale and explanation. No Straight forward / Simple answer will be accepted.

Turn it in Score must be less than 25 % or will not be accepted for credit, must be your own work and in your own words. You can resubmit, Final submission will be accepted if less than 25 %.

All answers to case studies must have reference cited in the text for each answer and a minimum of 2 Scholarly References (Journals, books) (No websites) per case Study
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

ANSWER

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

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Question 1
HIV in an individual’s body attacks and destroys CD4+ lymphocytes. These cells are used as one of the factors to check the progression of HIV disease in infected individuals. A higher CD4+ count indicates that an individual’s immune system is healthier (Ratnam et al., 2018). CD4+ count varies in individuals based on their genetic factors, demographic factors, immunological, as well as environmental factors. When an individual is infected with HIV, they experience a loss in their CD4 cell as they are prone to opportunistic infections and other complications related to AIDS. The occurrence of AIDS is associated with a decrease in the CD4+ lymphocytes which also results in an increased risk of individuals contracting other health complications. Based on the association between CD4+ count and increased risk of health complications, the CD4+ count is used to determine what treatment option is appropriate for the infected individual as well as to monitor the efficacy of the treatment chosen (Ratnam et al., 2018).
Question 2
The initial step when handling individuals infected with HIV is to perform a CD4+ test to determine the disease’s progress. The recommendation of monitoring CD4 cells after every three to six months for HIV infected individuals is because the results form the basis for AIDS diagnosis. Also, the results are important in diagnosing other clinical complications as well as determining the progress of the treatment initiated (Ratnam et al., 2018). The monitoring recommended is a laboratory test that measures the number of CD4 cells in the individual’s body where a low number indicate most of them are destroyed. After 3-6 months, the test is repeated to assess the CD4+ level. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an individual is identified to be AIDS positive when their CD4+ cell count is less than 200 cells/mm (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). If CD4+ cells are found below this level at any particular time of 3-6 laboratory tests, then the individual is diagnosed with AIDS where appropriate treatment is initiated.
Question 3
News about HIV/AIDS diagnosis can be difficult to take and accept for any patient. It is a hard step to inform the patient of their diagnosis as one does not know their reactions after discovering their health condition. However, delivering HIV diagnosis results to a patient is an essential opportunity to protect their health by initiating an immediate treatment to increase their life span. The best way to approach the patient with the news is by preparing the patient psychologically before delivering the news. The next step is to deliver the results clearly without hiding any information about the results. Also, the provider should consider the patient’s inquiries regarding the results such as the treatment, as well as pay attention to their opinions. Also, the care provider should emphasize the importance and effectiveness of treatment, elaborate on the process of partner notification, and recommend immediate care.
Question 4
A reportable disease is a disease perceived to have a great significance in terms of public health in a given state and should be reported immediately when diagnosed. This reporting is used for the collection of data that assesses the frequency of the disease’s occurrence, the trends, and outbreaks and in the management of future prevalence. In Florida, HIV is a notifiable disease where its reporting was initiated in 1996. As a care provider, it is my responsibility to report HIV-positive results and the specific patients diagnosed to the county health authorities within 14 days. Additionally, I am supposed to report the patients’ CD4 count and the viral load data. In the case of children born with HIV, the reporting should be done on the next day after birth failure to which the provider is fined $500 and disciplinary action by the provider’s licensing board.

References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). revised guidelines for the performance of CD4+ T-cell determinations in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. 1994.
Ratnam, M. V. R., Nayyar, A. S., Reddy, D. S., Ruparani, B., Chalapathi, K. V., & Azmi, S. M. (2018). CD4 cell counts and oral manifestations in HIV infected and AIDS patients. Journal of oral and maxillofacial pathology: JOMFP, 22(2), 282.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)


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